economy: reports, articles and contacts
Besides damaging the environment and exacerbating social and racial segregation, a growing body of research recognizes the huge subsidies required and economic inefficiency of sprawl.  A number of American business leaders are beginning to recognize that sprawl can raise the cost of doing business and reduce long-term profitability.

Another Way Sprawl Happens:  Economic Development Subsidies in a Twin Cities Suburb. LeRoy, Greg. (Good Jobs First, January 2000)

Autodependency as a Cost. Litman, Todd. (Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 1996).

Beyond Sprawl:  New Patterns of Growth to Fit California. A report sponsored by California Resources Agency, the Bank of America, Greenbelt Alliance and the Low Incoming Housing Fund. Beyond Sprawl provides a hard-hitting concise summary of the costs of  sprawl to California's economy. The report also describes the consequences of sprawl for farmland, the environment, older citizens, and low-income people. One of the more readable discussions of sprawl. 

Central City and Suburban Development: Who Pays and Who Benefits. Persky, Joseph and Wim Wiewel.(Chicago, IL: University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Urban Plannning and Public Affairs, Great Cities Institute, 1996).

Chicago Metropolis 2020: Preparing Metropolitan Chicago for the 21st Century.
A strategic guide to enhancing the area's economic vitality and improving the equality of opportunity for all its residents. The Metropolis report was developed by The Commercial Club of Chicago.

The Costs of Alternative Development Patterns: A Review of the Literature. Frank, James E.Washington, DC: The Urban Land Institute, 1989. 
The Costs of Sprawl: Environmental and Economic Costs of Alternative Residential Development Patterns at the Urban FringeCouncil on Environmental Quality, Department of Housing and Urban Development, and Environmental Protection Agency,(Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, April 1974). 
Although outdated, this 1974 report on the cost of sprawl remains seminal and entirely relevant theoretically to contemporary sprawl. The report consists of two volumes: a literature review and bibliography, and a detailed cost analysis. 

Does Business Development Raise Taxes: An Empirical Appraisal,
Oakland, William H and William A. Testa. Chicago, IL: Metropolitan Planning Council and the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1995.

Economic Development in Minnesota: High Subsidies, Low Wages, Absent Standards.
This study reveals that many Minnesota corporations who benefit from economic development incentives pay very low wages.  Tax Increment Financings figure in to almost every episode of taxpayer-subsidized corporate migration identified in the study.  The availablity of the incentives encourage Minnesota corporations to threaten to move for higher subsidies.  For a copy of the report contact: Good Jobs First, 202-626-3780.

Emerging Trends in Real Estate 2000. Lend Lease Real Estate Investments and PricewaterhouseCoopers.   New York: Lend Lease Real Estate Investments, October 1999.

Explaining Urban Density and Transit to Decrease Auto Dependence and Costs. Holtzclaw, John. (San Francisco, CA: Natural Resources Defense Council; and Costa Mesa, CA: California Home Energy Efficiency Rating Systems, 1994).

Out of Reach. National Low Income Housing Coalition. (September 2000).

Planning for Prosperity.  The Sierra Business Council's user-friendly blueprint developed by business people -for accomodating growth while safeguarding the natural beauty and quality of life. 
Contact: Sierra Business Council at 530-582-4800.

Profiles of Business Leadership on Smart Growth: New Partnerships Demonstrate the Economic Benefits of Reducing Sprawl.  The new study sponosored by the National Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals includes 19 profiles of business and business coalitions that have found ways to grow while respecting and enhancing the communities they call home. 

Regulation for Revenue:  The Political Economy of Land Use Exactions. Altshuler, Alan A. and Jose Gomez-Ibanez with Arnold Howitt. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution; and Cambridge MA; Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1994).

Silicon Valley Projections '99. A report prepared for the Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group by the Association of Bay Area Governments.  The report highlights trends in transportation, housing and education.  The forecast extends to the year 2010.

The Technological Reshaping of Metropolitan America, 
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology AssessmentOTA-ETI-643 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing office, September 1995). 
Where are the Jobs? Cities, Suburbs and the Competition for Employment. Brennan, John and Edward Hill. (The Urban Center, Levin College of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University, Brookings Institution's Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Washington, DC: 1999).

"Seattle's Gridlock Could Put Growth in Neutral," Wall Street Journal, Feburary 1998. 

"BellSouth plans three centers along MARTA", Atlanta Journal Constitution, January 1999.

"Fighting Sprawl, a County Gets Intel to Limit Jobs," The New York Times, June 1999.

"Intel's  Blue-Chip Deal,"Governing Magazine, October, 1999

Remarks by Bank of America Chairman and CEO Hugh L. McColl, Jr. to the International Council of Shopping Centers, March 30, 1999.
The Aspen Institute
Community Strategies Group  
Meriwether Jones, Director, 
For more information on CSG contact:
Kelly Malone
Community Strategies Group
The Aspen Institute
One Dupont Circle, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20036
202.736.1494 (phone)
202.293.0525 (fax)
Email CSG

Bank of America.  Bank of America is aggressively pursuing smart growth practices in communities across the country through lending for brownfields redevelopment, infill projects, and mixed-use development. Contact: Randy Muller at 404.607.4173, or Tommy Shealy at 704.388.1118.

Better York (PA). Business executives from over 45 local companies established Better York, a non-profit organization with the goals of improving the health of downtown York, PA, revitalizing the local economy, and preserving the character of the region's communities. Contact: Tom Wolf at 717.852.4800, or Better York at 717.852.2635.

BlueGrass Tomorrow.  Bluegrass Tomorrow, a nonprofit community-based organization, was founded in 1989 by area business executives to shape the long-term pattern and form of development in the region.  Contact:606.259.9829.

Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy
The Center has special expertise on regional governance issues and seeks
to shape a new generation of urban policies that will help build strong cities and metropolitan regions. 

Cascade General Coroporation.  Cascade General, a ship repair facility, supports local and regional growth management because its good for business.  Contact:  Sam Brooks at 503.284.7930, Clayton Hering at 503.273.0333, or Alan Sprott at 503.247.1672.

Center on Wisconsin Strategy
Joel Rogers, Director 
1180 Observatory Drive 
Madison, WI 53706 

The Commercial Club of Chicago. A membership organization of more than 400 business and civic leaders.  Contact: Chicago Metropolis 2020 at 312.332.2020.

Consumers Energy.  Consumers Energy has organized business support for brownfields redevelopment and helped establish a separate organization, Consumers Renaissance Development Corporation, to market and promote brownfields throughout Michigan. Contact: Bruce Rasher at 517.788.0331.

DaimlerChrysler.  DaimlerChrysler has invested over $1.6 billion in Detroit's Empowerment Zone.  Contact: Fred Hoffman at 248.512.3352.

Des Moines Agribusiness Park.  The park is a 1,200-acre brownfields project in the early stages of redevelopment, that represents an innovative partnership among the region's business, neighborhood associations, and government officials to promote land stewardship and to root economic progress in the area's agricultural heritage. Contact:  Ellen Walkowiak at 515.237.1351, or Louis Van Daele at 515.263.8600.

Good Jobs First
Greg LeRoy, Director
1311 L Street, NW, #400
Washington, DC 20005

Greater Cleveland Growth Association.  The Greater Cleveland Growth Association helped establish Build Up Greater Cleveland, a public-private partnership created to implement a community capital investment strategy for maintenance and rehabilitation of the existing infrastructure. Contact:  David Goss at 216.592.2343.

Grow Smart Rhode Island. Grow Smart Rhode Island was incorporated to "bring together diverse interests to protect and improve Rhode Island's qulaity of life, economic vitality, environmental health, and the unique physical character created by the state's historic sites.  Contact:  James Dodge at 401.272.5040, or Grow Smart Rhode Island at 401.273.5711.

Nature Conservancy's Center for Economic Development
William Weeks, Director 
7 East Market Street, Suite 210 
Leesburg, VA 20176 

New Designs for Growth.  Local business leaders organized the community-based project to identify alternative patterns of development that would preserve the natural environment and regional character in northwest Michigan.  Contact:  Keith Charters at 231. 947.7566.

Renew Moline.  Established in 1988, dowtown business leaders established Renew Moline, a non-profit redevelopment organization organized to address the deteriorating downtown and waterfront. Contact: Don Margenthaler at 303.765.5040.

The Rouse Company.  The Rouse Company is the second largest retail developer in the nation.  The company owns and operates five mixed-use projects.  Contact:  Alton Scavo at 410.992.6031.

Sierra Business Council.  The Sierra Business Council represents a spectrum of business leaders throughout the region working to secure the long-term economic and environmental health of the Sierra Nevada for this and future generations.  Contact:  Tracy Grubbs at 530.582.4800.

Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group.  The Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group is a trade association representing over 130 of the largest Silicon Valley employers.  The Group is focusing on the economic and social impacts of sprawl on the region.  Contact:  Carl Guardino at 408.501.7864. 

Wisconsin Electric Power Company.  (WEPCO) promotes the revitalization of established neighborhoods and former industrial areas, and to minimize greenfield development at the suburban fringe.  Contact:  Brian Borofka at 414.221.4872.