election 2000
State and local sprawl-related initiatives (open space bonds, transportation funding, brownfield redevelopment, general plans, etc.) 

The YES and NO following the description indicate the result of each initiative. 

Land Trust Alliance and Trust for Public Land have inventoried the initiatives which dedicate public money for open space.  Spawl Watch Clearinghouse acknowledges their work for some of the initiatives that are listed below.  To review their list, please visit http://www.lta.org/policy/referenda2000.html 

Arizona 
Statewide NO 
The Citizen's Growth Management Initiative, Proposition 202, would require cities and counties to adopt growth management plans to limit urban sprawl. The plans would have to set urban growth boundaries, limit development and new city services outside the boundaries, require developers to pay for roads and schools to serve new subdivisions, and protect air and water quality. Plans could not be substantially changed without voter approval, and citizens could adopt plans and amendments by initiative. The initiative would also limit wildcat subdivisions, provide for public access to state conservation lands, and amend existing laws to conform them to the initiative.
Statewide NO
Proposition 100, is an initiative placed on the ballot by the Arizona Legislature which would, among other things, allow up to 3 percent of state trust land to be permanently set aside rather than sold.  Much of the Arizona environmental community believes this initiative would unfairly benefit ranchers and developers, and allow too much state land to be sold off for development.  Proposition 100 had been struck down by the Arizona Superior Court in August, but the state's  appeal was upheld by the Arizona Supreme Court. 
Prescott YES
Dedicate portion of sales tax to open space open space acquisition.

California 
Alameda County YES
(1) The Bay Area Transportation and Land Use Coalition is working to pass Measure B to extend Alameda County's transportation sales tax, that would provide a $186 million increase for transportation alternatives. 
(2) Alameda County voters will also decide on the Save Agriculture and Open Space Lands Initiative sponsored by the Sierra Club SF Bay Chapter, Greenbelt  Alliance, and Palomares Home Owners Association. The measure establishes a county Urban Growth Boundary which will focus urban development in and near existing cities where it will, they argue, be more efficiently served by public facilities. NO
San Luis Obispo County NO
Similar to ballot initiatives passed in Napa County (1990) and Ventura County (1998), the Save our Open Space and Agricultural Resources (SOAR) initiative will require voter approval of zoning changes for agricultural and rural lands in the county. 
Santa Clara County YES
There is a proposal to extend Santa Clara County's transportation sales tax which expires in 2006.  The Bay Area Transportation and Land Use Coalition has concerns about the projects to be funded by the extention, and believes it would be prudent to vote on a better proposal later after further community input. 
Sonoma County NO
The Rural Heritage Initiative would require voter approval for any changes made in the existing general plan zoning on rural and agricultural lands and any increases in housing density in these areas. With RHI, cities will still be able to decide how much land they want to annex and develop.  Similar ballot initiatives were passed in Napa and Ventura Counties in 1990 and 1998 respectively. Over the last ten years, voters in Sonoma County have supported growth control measures with six out of the nine cities in the county passing urban growth boundaries. 
**Several more cities and counties in California have ballot initiatives focusing on transportation and growth. For a complete list, please visit the Surface Transportation Policy Project's website for its California campaign.

Colorado 
Statewide NO
The Responsible Growth Initiative (Amendment 24) is being promoted by a coalition environmental, land use planning, and community groups as way to preserve open space in Colorado.  The legislation would require the following:
 * Cities and counties must prepare maps of any outlying areas where future development is expected, outlining the location and general densities and uses of  the land. The plans must be submitted to local voters for approval before construction is allowed in undeveloped areas. 
* Cities and counties would describe to voters the projected impacts of the new development, including its costs and effect on traffic, schools, open space, air quality and emergency services. 
* Development would only be allowed in areas where localities can afford the costs, including financing, to build roads and central water and sewer systems within a ten-year period. 
 Arvada NO
Issue 2A will institute a 0.25% sales and use tax to acquire, develop and maintain a) open spaces and b) community and neighborhood parks. 
Aspen  YES
Dedicate portion of sales tax increase to open space acquisition, improvement and recreation.
Aurora NO
Issue 2B will increase its debt and then also it’s property taxes “to pay for acquiring, constructing, installing and equipping park and open space projects.”  
Berthoud 
“Shall the issuance of building permits in the Town of Berthoud for the construction of new residential dwelling units be limited to 2% - 5% of the total number of residential dwelling units on December 31, 2000 and for each year  thereafter?” 
City of Boulder YES
Boulder residents will vote on a property tax increase that would buy about 3,000 local households a Denver Regional Transit District ECO pass. Property taxes would go up about $50 to $100 annually to pay for the bus passes for every resident in seven separate neighborhoods. 
City of Boulder
#201 will enact a tax increase on both the commercial excise tax (+$1.25 / sq. ft.) and general sales tax (+0.09%) to fund Boulder’s existing affordable housing program and others that the city council might create. For more information:  Peggy Wrenn, 303-443-7092                  Boulder County YES
Issue 1A will continue an existing 0.1% sales and use tax for the purpose of continuing revenues “for purposes of open space acquisition and improvements."
Denver
1b asks voters to allow the city to retain excess tax revenue (which, under the  TABOR amendment to the CO constitution, must otherwise be returned to voters in the form of tax refunds), “to spend for affordable housing and transportation improvement projects.” For more information:  Yes on 1b, 303-592-8900 
Eagle County
Issues 4G-4J are a series of questions which concern different aspects of the creation, organization and funding of the “Roaring Fork Open Space Park and Recreation District.” The district would be funded by a property tax not to exceed 2.5 mills, and would concern itself with purchasing land and easements for open space, parks, access to rivers and public lands, trails, growth buffers between communities, and the preservation of agricultural lands.                     
Evergreeen P&RD YES
$3.5 million bond for parks.
Garfield County YES
A 2.5-mill property tax would generate $1 million annually, costing the owner of a $300,000 home about $75 a year.  The tax could create enough revenue to service a $10 million bond for land acquisitions. 
Golden YES
Portion of $26 million for parks and recreation.
Longmont YES
Issue 2B will increase its sales and use tax by 0.2% and increase its debt to “acquire, improve, and maintain open space.”  
Loveland
#200 will require that the issuance of new building permits for new residential dwelling units limited to 2% of the existing housing base, to be recalculated annually. 
Roaring Fork Valley NO
Voters in Colorado's Roaring Fork Valley, stretching from Glenwood Springs to Aspen, will vote on a measure to create a Transportation Authority.  The Transportation Authority would be funded by sales tax or a visitor/bed tax and make road and transit decisions for the entire district.  
Weld County NO
Issue 1A will institute a 0.25% sales and use tax to fund the county  “Land Preservation Fund” which works to protect and preserve agricultural lands, watersheds, riparian corridors and wildlife habitat. 
**To see the results of more local ballot initiatives for open space preservation in Colorado, please visit http://www.lta.org/policy/ref_results.html

Connecticut
Killingworth YES
$740, 000 bond issue for open space.
Manchester YES
Portion of $340, 000 bond issue for open space.
Tolland YES
$2 million bond issue for open space acquisition, conservation easements and purchase of development rights for passive recreation.
Wilton Township YES
$4 million bond issue for acquiring specific conservation easements and open space.

Florida 
Statewide YES 
This measure will provide funding for a "monorail" line connecting five of Florida's largest cities.  For more information about the initiative, please visit http://election.dos.state.fl.us/cgi-bin/comhtml.exe?account=30427
Alachua County YES
A $29 million bond to acquire, improve and manage environmentally significant                    land.
Broward County YES
A $400 million open space bond will purchase land primarily in the western part of the county while also dedicating money to reclaim urban open space in the more urban eastern section.
Ft. Lauderdale YES
Bond $8 million bond issue for acquisition and improvement of specific parcel.
Leon County YES
A 1 cent sales tax renewal for 15 years to raise $728 million for traffic relief, clean lakes, and to protect and expand parks. 
Seminole County YES
A $25 million bond to acquire and improve natural lands, trails, and greenways.
Volusia County YES
A $40 million bond for acquisition and improvement of land, water, and recreation resources. 
West Palm Beach YES
$20 million for park acquisition and maintenance.

Georgia 
Atlanta YES 
A $27 million bond for public plazas and greenspace. 
Three other bond issues for pedestrian safety, sidwalks, and streets all passed. 
Cobb County NO
A 1-cent 15-month sales tax for parks, roads, and sidewalks. 
Douglas County NO
Portion of sales tax increase for park acquisition, maintenance, and recreation.
Gwinnett County YES
Continue sales and use tax and dedicate portion to open space and park land acquisition, and recreation. 
Roswell YES
$30 million bond issue for parks.

Illinois 
Madison County, Monroe County, St. Claire County, & Clinton County 
These four jurisdictions, along with three neighboring jurisdictions in Illinois, propose a 0.1 percent sales tax increase to create two very similar, but seperate, regional park districts that will work cooperatively.  The Illinois District will be called the  "Metro-East Park District". 
St. Claire  YES
Monroe NO
Madison YES
Clinton NO
**Several counties and municipalities dedicated funding for open space in Illinois.  For a complete list visit http://www.lta.org/policy/ref_results.html

Maine
Scarborough YES
A $1.5 million open space bond will buy both land and development rights.
Freeport YES
$500,000 bond issue to fund town land bank for open space acquisition, wildlife habitat, and farmland preservation.
Phillipsburg YES
Funding for specific parcel.

Maryland
Baltimore County YES
Bond issue for parks, open space preservation and greenways projects.
Baltimore County YES
Dedicate property tax increase to purchase farmland and open space preservation.

Massachusetts
Dover YES
$3.5 million bond issue for specific parcel.

Michigan 
Detroit YES
6 bonds are currently on the ballot in Detroit.  2 of these are particularly relevant for Detroit citizens concerned about livable communities:  Proposition R, which seeks $56 million for city parks and recreation areas, zoo and other cultural institutions, and Prop. D, which seeks $30 million for city redevelopment projects, primarily in neighborhoods. 
Meridian Township YES
Dedicate property tax increase for open space acquisition, purchasing development rights, habitat preservation and recreation.
Washtenaw County YES
Dedicate property tax increase for acquisition of environmentally-valuable areas, to preserve wildlife habitat and water quality, and recreation. 

Minnesota 
Blaine YES
$3.5 million bond issue for land acquisiton. 
Washington County NO
Question 1 is a $13.5 million open space bond to provide funds to acquire and manage conservation easements and other interests in property.  About 82,000 acres in the county, mostly along the St. Croix River Valley, have been identified as being in the green corridor. 

Missouri 
Statewide NO
The SAVE OUR SCENERY 2000 Campaign is a citizen’s initiative to put the billboard issue to a statewide vote.  The initiative, Proposition A, would stop new billboard construction on interstate and primary highways, such as I-44, I-70, I-64/40, I-55, I-35, Highways 21, 65, 63, 71 and 54. On-premise signs and official traveler information / tourist signs would not be affected. Existing billboards would not have to be taken down. 
Columbia YES
A 1/4-cent sales tax for five years to build, maintain, and purchase parks.
Kansas City NO
A 1/2-cent sales tax for 20 years to fund a $1.2 billion light-rail plan.  Plans call  for the sales tax to generate some $500 million for construction with the federal government providing $500 million in matching funds.  The 35-mile line would run from Waldo to Kansas City International Airport with an east-west span from Bruce R. Watkins Drive to the Country Club Plaza along Volker Boulevard.  It would also include a connection for the proposed Johnson County  communter-rail project. 
St. Louis City, St. Louis County, & St. Charles County
These three jurisdictions, along with four neighboring jurisdictions in Illinois, propose a 0.1 percent sales tax increase to create two very similar, but seperate, regional park districts that will work cooperatively.  The Missouis District will be called the  "Metropolitan Park and Recreation District". All three counties voted YES

Montana 
Gallatin County YES
A $10 million bond issue for land purchases and conservation easements. 

Nevada 
Douglas County NO
A 1/4 cent sales tax increase for 29 years for land purchases and conservation easements.
Reno YES
Initiative to stop new billboard construction.
Washoe County YES
A $38.3 million bond issue for acquiring and maintaining parks, trails, and libraries. 

New Jersey YES
A technical measure regarding the dedication of petroleum and auto sales tax to the Transportation Trust Fund. A "yes" vote would allow close to $1 billion per year over the next four years to flow into the Fund, intended to pay for mass transit and highway capital projects across the state. Disapproval would leave the Fund with only enough money to service the interest on its debt.  For more information, visit the Tri-State Transportation Campaign. 
**To see the results of the many local ballot initiatives in the State of New Jersey,        please visit http://www.lta.org/policy/ref_results.html

New Mexico 
Bernalillo County YES
A $1.5 million bond issue to acquire land and expand parks and recreational                    facilities. 
Bernalillo County  YES
A $25 million property tax extention to acquire land.
Santa Fe County YES
An $8 million general-obligation bond would  continue its open space aquisition program known as the Wildlife, Mountains, Trails and Historic Places Program. The county can use the bond money to purchase easements, trails, watersheds, natural and historical areas, mountains and foothills, sacred sites, land for wildlife and native plants, arroyos and river parkways, agricultural land and property for neighborhood parks. 

New York  NO
Proposition #1, the Tranportation Infrastructure Bond Act of 2000, is a legislative statute referendum to authorize $3,800,000,000 in bonds for transportation infrastructure. Approximately, one half of this money will be allocated towards transit.
**To see the results of the many local ballot initiatives in the State of New York,           please visit http://www.lta.org/policy/ref_results.html

North Carolina
Garner YES
A $3.5 million bond issue to acquire and improve land for public parks.
Greensboro YES
A $34.2 million bond issue for recreational facilities and parks.
Guilford County YES
$10 million bond issue for parks acquisition and development, and recreation.
New Hanover County NO
$34 million bond issue for open space acquisition and recreation.
Raleigh YES
The City of Raleigh is proposing a $75 million city bond initiative.  $45 million will be allocated toward road widening  projects including funding for sidewalks and bicycle lanes.  Significantly, none of  the $45 million will be allocated for transit even though traffic in the Research Triangle has greatly worsened over the past decade.  The additional $30 million will be split among parks ($16 million for acquisition and construction) and affordable housing ($14 million). 
Wake County YES
A $15 million bond issue for open space. 

Ohio 
Statewide YES
State officials have placed a bond initiative on the ballot, State Issue #1, which will make available $400 million for brownfield redevelopment and open space and farmland preservation.
Allen Township NO
Dedicate property tax increase for park land acquisition.
Dayton NO
Issue 2 is a 1.8-mill levy that would generate $ 16 million a year for operation and conservation costs for the extensive Five Rivers MetroParks system for 10 years. The levy would replace the current 1.2-mill levy that created the park system. 
Erie County NO
Property tax increase to acquire and preserve 1400-acre Edison Woods. 
Geauga Park District YES
Property tax increase to acquire, preserve, and protect lands. 
Granville Township YES
Dedicate property tax increase for green space preservation.
Green Township YES
Dedicate property tax increase to establish open space trust fund for open space and
park lands acquisition.
Medina County NO
Sales tax for farmland preservation.
Parma YES
A $25 million bond issue to acquire and improve West Creek Valley for conservation and recreation purposes. 
Portage County PD  NO
Dedicate property tax increase to the park district for open space acquisition and other projects.
Shelby County PD NO
Dedicate property tax increase to the park district for open space acquisition and other
projects.

Oklahoma
Cushing YES
Authorization to acquire specific parcel for parks and recreation.

Oregon 
Statewide YES
Measure 7, a "takings initiative", would require state and local governments to  compensate property owners if government regulations lessesn the value of their  property. The measure, sponsored by Oregonians in Action, is thought by many in Oregon to be a direct attack on Oregon's model land use laws which are  largely responsible for Oregon's preservation of farmland and open space, even as population has increased.  1000 Friends of Oregon, a leading grassroots organization advocating smart growth, has information on how this initiative could seriously weaken these and other environmental laws. 
Statewide NO
Ballot Measure 2 would amend the Oregon Constitution to create a new process to review administrative rules by the Legislative Assembly upon the petition of at least 10,000 qualified voters.  The Legislative Assembly would then have to approve an administrative rule by passing the bill, if the bill does not "pass" then it becomes null and void.  A large majority of Oregon's environmental, planning  and civic (not to mention labor and business) organizations oppose this measure  because, they argue, powerful interests will be able to overturn important regulations and statutes (including all of Oregon's Statewide Planning Goals) without a vote of the people or the Legislature. 
Blue Heron Recreation District NO
A $7.6 million property tax increase to purchase and preserve open space for recreational purposes. 
Corvallis YES
A $7.9 million bond issue for open space purchases. 
North Clackamas Parks & Recreation District NO 
Property tax increase to maintain parks, programs, services, and to provide more open space, natural areas, trails, pathways and recreational opportunities.
Tualatin Hills Park and Recreation District NO
Property tax increase for maintenance, land acquisition, and capital improvements.

Pennsylvania 
East Bradford Township YES
Earned income tax increase for open space.
Hilltown Township YES
Earned income tax increase to buy open space, development rights, conservation/agricultural easements.
London-Britain Township YES
Dedicate property tax increase for open space acquisition.
New Britain Township YES
Earned income tax increase for open space.
West Rock Hill Township YES
Earned income tax increase for open space preservation.
Upper Makefield YES
In the suburbs of Philadelphia, the township of Upper Makefield is proposing a $15 million open space bond to purchase the rights to undeveloped land in the wooded township of 9,600 people along the Delaware River. 
**Several townships dedicated funding for open space.  For a complete list visit
http://www.lta.org/policy/ref_results.html

Rhode Island 
Statewide YES
Question 1 will provide $34 million for open space purchaces through public, private and nonprofit agencies.  The $34 million bond will be used to leverage other funding sources, resulting in a total of $80 million or more for open space protection over ten years. 
Statewide YES
Question 3 is a legislative statute referendum.  Approval of this question will authorize the State of Rhode Island to issue general obligation bonds and refunding bonds in an amount not to exceed $62,510,000 to match federal funds and fund improvements to the State’s highways, roads and bridges and to purchase buses for the Rhode Island Public Transit Authority’s fleet.
Charlestown YES
A $2 million open space bond will provide matching funds for open space purchases if Question 1 passes. 
Cumberland YES
A $1.5 million open space bond. 
Lincoln YES
A $1 million open space bond. 

South Carolina 
Beaufort County YES
A $40 million bond to purchase open space and development rights. 
Charleston County NO
Voters will decide whether or not to raise a local sales tax by one-half cent to pay for roads and transit. It would raise approximately $1.2 billion over the next 25 years, 35 percent of which would be for transit. 
Town of Hilton Head YES
A $20 million bond to purchase open space, parks, and manage growth. 

Texas 
Austin Metro Area NO
A transit initiative this Fall will let voters dedicate exisitng transportation funds towards a 22 mile $919 mile light rail line through the city.  The alignment would connect the University of Texas, the Texas Capitol, high-tech employees, and the central business district.  To learn more about the initiative and the campaign to pass  it please contact Sheila Holbrook-White at Texas Citizen Action at 512-699-8136 or visit www.lightrailnow.org
Austin YES
A $13.4 million bond issue for open space acquisition. 
Austin YES
A $150 million bond for highway and road construction, HOV lanes, and bicycle and pedestrian facilities. 
El Paso YES
Portion of bond issue for park acquisition.
Galveston County
Proposition 1 is a $35 million bond to fund 27 road and bridge projects. YES
Proposition 3 is a $1.3 million to study and design one leg of the proposed Grand Parkway highway project.  YES
San Antonio YES
Sales tax increase for watershed protection.

Utah 
Spanish Fork YES
Spanish Fork will decide whether or not to stay part of the Utah Transit Authority. 
Wasatch Front YES
A 1/4 cent sales tax will be on the ballot in Salt Lake, Weber and Davis counties in Utah's Wasatch Front to expand transit services.  It approved in all three counties, the measure would provide the Utah Transit Authority with additional funding for a commuter rail line connecting Ogden and Salt Lake City and increased bus service.

Virginia
Fairfax YES
Dedicate property tax increase for acquisition of park lands and recreation.
Henrico YES
Portion of bond issue for park land acquisition and recreation.
Lounden County NO
Bond issue for parks.

Washington 
Statewide NO
I-745 increases road spending and makes it the transportation priority, at the expense of other transportation choices.  I-745 would require 90 percent of  transportation funds to be spent on road construction, improvement, and maintenance.  It would also require all local transportation plans to be updated to  make road and lane construction the top priority.  I-745 will increase road spending and make that the sole transportation priority at the expense of, critics argue, other transportation choices.
King County YES
A tax increase measure would seek to restore some $80 million to local bus service that was lost after last year’s passage of Initiative 695.  If the increase is approved, sales tax in King County, Washington would increase by two cents  for every $10 spent. 
Lake Forest Park YES 
A $3.5 million bond to acquire, preserve, and develop parks and open space.
Seattle YES
Initiative 53 would require the city of Seattle to undertake a one- or two-year study of possible monorail routes. It would also set aside some $200 million toward the construction of a monorail system. 
Seattle YES
Proposition #1 would allow the City of Seattle to increase regular property taxes for up to eight years to collect up to $198.2 million for neighborhood parks, green spaces, trails, and the zoo. 

Wisconsin 
Door County NO
A $15 million bond issue to purchase land for conservation and recreation.

 * For a comprehensive listing of all transit related initiatives that have qualified for the Fall 2000 ballot, please visit Transit Vote's website. Transit Vote is a non-partisan effort to mobilize transit riders around the country to participate in the political process. 

1999 
The Land Trust Alliance recently released the first comprehensive analysis of the 1999 ballot questions on open space funding, entitled, Voter's Invest in Open Space: 1999 Referenda Results.  Last year, voters in communities across the country passed 90% of the 102 measures on the ballot, and authorized more than $1.8 billion in local taxing authority and bonds for the protection of open spaces and parks.  This publication can be viewed on LTA's website at: http://www.lta.org/1999referenda.html

                    Results of Land Use and Sprawl Related Measures That Appeared on
California's March 7, 2000 Primary Ballot:

                     For an analysis of fifteen local ballot measures, link to California Planning and
Development Report.

                       Results of Local Ballot Measures Related to Land Use, Growth
Management and Quality of Life Issues That California Voters
Considered 
March 7, 2000 

                                November 1999 Ballot Measure Results