Mayors Call for National Rail Policy
At their recent conference, the U.S. Conference
of Mayors called for a national rail policy and urged President Bush and
the Congress to make passenger rail service a top priority and a solution
to the growing crisis of traffic and air congestion. U.S. Conference
of Mayors also released a nationwide poll that showed strong public backing
for passenger rail investment, with a vast majority of respondents (82%)
supporting funding for a rail service network as an option to driving their
Transit Ridership Continues to Rise
In the year 2000, more Americans decided to leave
the driving to someone else. Last year, usage of U.S. public transportation
systems grew by an estimated 320 million rides, to a
total of 9.4 billion trips, according to preliminary
estimates released today by the American Public Transportation Association
(APTA). This record ridership represents the highest level of use in public
transportation in more than forty years, according to APTA. www.apta.com
Choices Scorecard For New England and New York
of the Earth has released Transportation
Choices Scorecard for New England and New York, which evaluates
state commitments to funding and promoting transportation choices. The
findings in Transportation Choices show that states over invest in automobile
transportation services at the expense of offering commuters choices, supporting
transportation for the urban and rural poor, and investing in programs
that would result in less air pollution from transportation. Moreover,
the states generally fail to take advantage of rules that allow for the
more flexible use of federal transportation funds. The report grades
the states in four transportation areas: economic incentives for sustainable
transportation choices, spending on transportation choices, spending on
pedestrian projects, and equitable access to mobility
Lessens Burden of Congestion
the Burden, shows that road building has done little to ease
congestion, while transit service is significantly lessening the burden
of congestion on many commuters. A new ranking developed by the Surface
Transportation Policy Project (STPP) shows how the average commuter
is affected by both congestion levels and the availability of transit in
68 U.S. cities. STPP analyzed data collected by the Texas
Transportation Institute for its annual Urban Mobility Study and found
that metro areas that added the most roads have had little success in easing
congestion. But metro areas with good transit service rank significantly
lower on the new Congestion Burden Index.
Since its inception in 1991, The Surface
Transportation Policy Project has released numerous reports on transportation
reform policy. As opposed to listing all of their reports here, you
would be wise to click on their website, www.transact.org,
to review all of their material.
Benfield, Kaid, Running on Empty: The Case
for a Sustainable National Transportation System (Environmental
Law, Volume 25, Number 3, 1995.)
Boarnet, Marlon G. & Haughwout, Andrew, Do
Highways Matter? Evidence and Policy Implications of Highways' Influence
on Metropolitan Development (Brookings,
Center for Urban and Metropolitan Policy, August 2000)
Carlson, Daniel, Wormser, Lisa and Ulberg,
Cy, At Road's End: Transportation and Land Use Choices for Communities
Washington, DC, 1995.)
Bay Foundation, Building Healthier Neighborhoods with Metrorail:
Improving Joint Development Opportunities (March 2001).
Council for Invesment in the New American City--a
partership between the U.S.
Council of Mayors and the
Bankers Association of America--A
Report on the Changing Realities of Cities.
of the Earth, D.C. at the Crossroads (February 2001).
Holtzclaw, John, Using Residential Patterns
and Transit to Decrease Auto Dependence and Costs (Natural
Resources Defense Council, June 1994, 29 pp.)
American Station Foundation, Ten Most Endangered Stations
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Roundabouts
Public Interest Research Group, Paving the Way (January
Moore, Terry and Thorsnes, The Transportation/Land
Use Connection (APA
Governor's Association, In the Fast Lane: Delivering More
Transportation Choices to Break Gridlock
National Transportation Enhancements Clearinghouse.
The Social and Economic Benefits of Transportation
Enhancements (December 2000.)
Noland, Robert, Traffic Fatalities and Injuries:
Are Reductions the Result of improvements in highway design standards?
for Transport Studies, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial
College of Science, Technology and Medicine. November 2000). http://www.cts.cv.ic.ac.uk/staff/wp5-noland.pdf
Transportation Policy Project, Mean Streets 2000 & Dangerous
by Design (STPP, July & September 2000.)
Transportation Policy Project, Americans
Flock to Transit, Ease Up on Gas Pedal (STPP, April 2000.)
Unitied States Environmental Protection Agency
& Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, Redeveloping
Brownfields with Federal Transportation Funds. (Februay 2001.)
Bernick, Michael and Robert Burke Cervero, Transit
Villages in the 21st Century (Washington, DC. McGraw-Hill
New towns built around metropolitan rail stations
are reducing gridlock and spurring development. Learn how others have dealt
with the issues of land use, transportation planning, community redevelopment,
and local economics.
Camph, Donald H., Transportation and the Changing
Face of America (Washington, D.C.: Surface Transportation Policy
Project, Monograph No.3, August 1995).
A brief booklet that describes how transit policies
affect the lives of women and the elderly, and how the Intermodal Surface
Transportation Efficiency Act offers some relief.
Cervero, Robert, The Transit Metropolis (Island
Cervero explores a number of metropolitan areas which
have in recent decades managed to mount cost-effective and resource-conserving
transit services that provide respectable alternatives to car travel.
DiStefano, Joe and Matthew Raimi, Five Years
of Progress: 110 Communities Where ISTEA is Making a Difference
(Washington, D.C.: Surface
Transportation Policy Project, 1996).
This report, released five years after passage of
the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, documents how the
law has made communities more livable, brought the public into the decisionmaking
process, and transformed transportation planning and investment.
Dunphy, Robert, Moving Beyond Gridlock
(Washington, DC. Urban Land Institute 2000)
Learn which policies make mattters worse
and what techniques hold promise for
improving traffic. Case studies of Portland,
Atlanta, Phoenix, St. Louis, Toronto, San
Diego, and Houston let you study the
practical experiences of urban areas that
have taken the lead in dealing with
Durning, Alan Thein, The Car and the City
(Northwest Environment Watch).
Cars pollute our air and endanger cyclists and pedestrians.
What can planners do to minimize the impact automobiles have on our communities?
In this thought-provoking book, Alan Durning takes us on a journey to Seattle,
Portland, and Vancouver - and uses detailed case studies to show us the
innovative programs these communities have implemented to slow traffic,
restore air quality, and improve the overall health of our urban neighborhoods.
Greene, David L., Transportation and Energy
(Landsdowne, VA: Eno Transportation Foundation, 1997).
A far-ranging review of the impact of transportation
on energy use, with attention paid to such alternatives as improved efficiency,
alternate fuels and vehicles, and strategies to change people's behavior.
Greene argues for a combination of technological R&D, policies to promote
efficiency and demand management, land use reforms.
Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile
Took Over America and How We Can Take It Back (New York: Crown
Publishers, Inc., 1997).
A comprehensive history of the destructive impact
of automobiles on urban design, community life, the environment, and families.
The book is extensively documented and highly accessible. A one-stop introduction
to the major thinkers and treatises on transit policy.
Pucher, John and Christian Lefevre, The Urban
Transport Crisis in Europe and North America (London: MacMillian
An overview of the social, economic and environmental
problems brought on by the automobile, with a comparative study of eight
nations: Germany, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Great Britain, eastern
Europe, Canada and the United States. The authors' grim conclusion: traffic
jams and sprawl will grow steadily worse unless pro-active public policies
Safdie, Moshe and Wendy Kohn, The City After
the Automobile: An Architect's Vision (New York: Harper Collins,
This book offers an erudite, visionary critique of
what cities could become if stronger city planning and land-use laws helped
concentrate development in cities. The authors may veer into the fantastic
by proposing publicly owned electric cars and elevated moving sidewalks,
but who can argue with less reliance on cars and more public spaces?
Urban Land Institute, Parking Requirements
for Shopping Centers, Second Edition (Urban
Land Institute 1999).
How many parking spaces are needed for today’s shopping
centers? Based on a comprehensive nationwide survey of parking at
shoppingcenters, Parking Requirements for Shopping Centers: Summary Recommendations
and Research Study Report provides the standards for all sizes of retail
facilities—from small strip centers to major malls. One will learn
how multiplex cinemas, food courts, and entertainment features affect parking,
and how to make the most of existing space. The report was conducted under
the direction of ULI–the Urban Land Institute and the International Council
of Shopping Centers (ICSC).
Urban Land Institue, The Dimensions of Parking,
Fourth Edition (Urban
Land Institute 2000).
Get the latest information on parking development
Whether you plan to offer free or pay parking, you
will learn best practices for how to plan, design, finance, build, and
operate a parking facility. Updated throughout, this edition covers
the impact of sport utility vehicles and lights trucks, and best practices
in financing, parking at commuter and subway rail stations and compliance
with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Wachs, Martin and Margaret Crawford, The Car
and the City: The Automobile, the Built Environment and Daily Urban Life
(Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992).
A brisk collection of twenty essays on the automobile's
role in urban design, family life, the suburbs, commuting, and cultural
life. Much of the material is historical; all of it has scholarly rigor.
Federal Agency Questions Hartman-Hammond Bridge." Michigan
Land Use Institute. December 6, 2000.
Intelligent Transportation Policy." Robert Puentes. (Brookings Review.
"Rail Service Group Pushes Plan for Montana Route."
Billings Gazzette. December 29, 2000.
May Be Banned from Central Hong Kong to Reduce Pollution." Reuters.
January 8, 2001.
"The fast track; High-speed rail starts strong,
but progress is slow in Midwest," Kansas
City Star. January 19, 2001
"Groups Sue To Stop Highway," The Daily Herald.
January 18, 2001.
"Fairfax Weighs Buildup Around Metro Stations,"
Washington Post. January 19, 2001.
My Way to Highway," Reid Ewing. Planning. (American Planning
Association. January 2001.)
"Metrorail's 25 Years," Washington
Post. March 25, 26, 2001.
"Mounting Congestion is Challenge to DOT," Washington
Post. May 15, 2001.
Ken Cook, President
1718 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20036
Transportation Policy Project
1100 17th Street, NW, 10 Floor
Washington, DC 20036
Shows vivid photographs of urban areas such as
Rome, Amsterdam, etc. that have carfree plazas, streets for shopping, etc.
Shows livability of particular urban centers.
Community Transportation Association of America
Public Transit Association
of Transportation Statistics